Yang D, Leibowitz JL. The structure and functions of coronavirus genomic 3′ and 5′ ends. Virus Res. 2015 Aug 3;206:120-33.

McGruder B, Leibowitz JL. A review of genetic methods and models for analysis of coronavirus-induced severe pneumonitis. J Gen Virol. 2015 Mar;96(Pt 3):494-506.

Yang D, Liu P, Wudeck EV, Giedroc DP, Leibowitz JL. SHAPE analysis of the RNA secondary structure of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus 5′ untranslated region and N-terminal nsp1 coding sequences. Virology. 2015 Jan 15;475:15-27.


Kaufman G, Liu P, Leibowitz JL. Identification of novel functional regions within the spike glycoprotein of MHV-A59 based on a bioinformatics approach. Virus Res. 2014 Aug 30;189:177-88.


Liu P, Yang D, Carter K, Masud F, Leibowitz JL. Functional analysis of the stem loop S3 and S4 structures in the coronavirus 3’UTR. Virology. 2013 Aug 15;443(1):40-7.


Bhardwaj K, Liu P, Leibowitz JL, Kao CC. The coronavirus endoribonuclease Nsp15 interacts with retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. J Virol. 2012 Apr;86(8):4294-304.

Keane SC, Liu P, Leibowitz JL, Giedroc DP. Functional transcriptional regulatory sequence (TRS) RNA binding and helix destabilizing determinants of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 2;287(10):7063-73.


Yang D, Liu P, Giedroc DP, Leibowitz J. Mouse hepatitis virus stem-loop 4 functions as a spacer element required to drive subgenomic RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2011 Sep;85(17):9199-209.

Leibowitz J, Kaufman G, Liu P. Coronaviruses: propagation, quantification, storage, and construction of recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2011 May;Chapter 15:Unit 15E.1.

Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL. Coronavirus pathogenesis. Adv Virus Res. 2011;81:85-164.


Leibowitz JL, Srinivasa R, Williamson ST, Chua MM, Liu M, Wu S, Kang H, Ma XZ, Zhang J, Shalev I, Smith R, Phillips MJ, Levy GA, Weiss SR. Genetic determinants of mouse hepatitis virus strain 1 pneumovirulence. J Virol. 2010 Sep;84(18):9278-91.


Grossoehme NE, Li L, Keane SC, Liu P, Dann CE 3rd, Leibowitz JL, Giedroc DP. Coronavirus N protein N-terminal domain (NTD) specifically binds the transcriptional regulatory sequence (TRS) and melts TRS-cTRS RNA duplexes. J Mol Biol. 2009 Dec 4;394(3):544-57.

Liu P, Li L, Keane SC, Yang D, Leibowitz JL, Giedroc DP. Mouse hepatitis virus stem-loop 2 adopts a uYNMG(U)a-like tetraloop structure that is highly functionally tolerant of base substitutions. J Virol. 2009 Dec;83(23):12084-93


Li L, Kang H, Liu P, Makkinje N, Williamson ST, Leibowitz JL, Giedroc DP. Structural lability in stem-loop 1 drives a 5′ UTR-3′ UTR interaction in coronavirus replication. J Mol Biol. 2008 Mar 28;377(3):790-803. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.01.068.


Kang H, Bhardwaj K, Li Y, Palaninathan S, Sacchettini J, Guarino L, Leibowitz JL, Kao CC. Biochemical and genetic analyses of murine hepatitis virus Nsp15 endoribonuclease. J Virol. 2007 Dec;81(24):13587-97.

Liu P, Li L, Millership JJ, Kang H, Leibowitz JL, Giedroc DP. A U-turn motif-containing stem-loop in the coronavirus 5′ untranslated region plays a functional role in replication. RNA. 2007 May;13(5):763-80.


De Albuquerque N, Baig E, Ma X, Zhang J, He W, Rowe A, Habal M, Liu M, Shalev I, Downey GP, Gorczynski R, Butany J, Leibowitz J, Weiss SR, McGilvray ID, Phillips MJ, Fish EN, Levy GA. Murine hepatitis virus strain 1 produces a clinically relevant model of severe acute respiratory syndrome in A/J mice. J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(21):10382-94.

Kang H, Feng M, Schroeder ME, Giedroc DP, Leibowitz JL. Putative cis-acting stem-loops in the 5′ untranslated region of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus can substitute for their mouse hepatitis virus counterparts. J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(21):10600-14.

DeAlbuquerque N, Baig E, Xuezhong M, Shalev I, Phillips MJ, Habal M, Leibowitz J, McGilvray I, Butany J, Fish E, Levy G. Murine hepatitis virus strain 1 as a model for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS). Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:373-8.

Kang H, Feng M, Schroeder ME, Giedroc DP, Leibowitz JL. Stem-loop 1 in the 5′ UTR of the SARS coronavirus can substitute for its counterpart in mouse hepatitis virus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:105-8

Liu P, Millership JJ, Li L, Giedroc DP, Leibowitz JL. A previously unrecognized UNR stem-loop structure in the coronavirus 5′ untranslated region plays a functional role in replication. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:25-30.


Johnson RF, Feng M, Liu P, Millership JJ, Yount B, Baric RS, Leibowitz JL. Effect of mutations in the mouse hepatitis virus 3′(+)42 protein binding element on RNA replication. J Virol. 2005 Dec;79(23):14570-85.

Youn S, Leibowitz JL, Collisson EW. In vitro assembled, recombinant infectious bronchitis viruses demonstrate that the 5a open reading frame is not essential for replication. Virology. 2005 Feb 5;332(1):206-15.


Nanda SK, Johnson RF, Liu Q, Leibowitz JL. Mitochondrial HSP70, HSP40, and HSP60 bind to the 3′ untranslated region of the Murine hepatitis virus genome. Arch Virol. 2004 Jan;149(1):93-111.


Liu M, Leibowitz JL, Clark DA, Mendicino M, Ning Q, Ding JW, D’Abreo C, Fung L, Marsden PA, Levy GA. Gene transcription of fgl2 in endothelial cells is controlled by Ets-1 and Oct-1 and requires the presence of both Sp1 and Sp3. Eur J Biochem. 2003 May;270(10):2274-86.


Chan CW, Chan MW, Liu M, Fung L, Cole EH, Leibowitz JL, Marsden PA, Clark DA, Levy GA. Kinetic analysis of a unique direct prothrombinase, fgl2, and identification of a serine residue critical for the prothrombinase activity. J Immunol. 2002 May 15;168(10):5170-7.


Liu Q, Johnson RF, Leibowitz JL. Secondary structural elements within the 3′ untranslated region of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM genomic RNA. J Virol. 2001 Dec;75(24):12105-13.

Nanda SK, Leibowitz JL. Mitochondrial aconitase binds to the 3′ untranslated region of the mouse hepatitis virus genome. J Virol. 2001 Apr;75(7):3352-62.

Nanda SK, Leibowitz JL. Mitochondrial aconitase binds to the 3′-UTR of mouse hepatitis virus RNA. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;494:603-8.

Johnson RF, Leibowitz JL. Mutagenesis of the 3’42 nucleotide host protein binding element of the MHV 3’UTR. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;494:499-505.

Leibowitz JL, Belyavskaya E. Caspase inhibitors block MHV-3 induced apoptosis and enhance viral replication and pathogenicity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;494:109-14.